Virtual is based on simulation. Simulation is an artificial reproduction of a phenomenon represented on a calculator and it is based on a mathematic model.
At the end of nineteenth century some scientists using the new born computer technology could suppose to use a computer to recreate a virtual environment with which they could interact. So it was possible to create a number of virtual worlds and to preview infinitive possibilities and practical applications. They called it virtual reality.
We can call virtual every thing which is purely computer based and doesn’t exists physically; Michael Heim, the first computer philosopher defined “virtual” as something that exists in the effect, not in the fact.
Classical virtual reality is defined as “third person”. With this technology it is possible to use cybernetic devices which reproduce somatic perceptions.
But another type of virtual reality exists: the so called desktop vehicle one.
The operator can see the simulated environment on a monitor. This type of virtual reality is less expensive. Nowadays virtual reality is used in everyday living, from traffic simulation, crash test and so on to simple games (playstation, pc games), allowing us to better understand our world without direct experience.

Technical characteristics:

Virtual IPO© is a software dedicated born after ten years of research and application of virtual technologies to the processes of vision. In this way, the visual rehabilitation becomes extremely customized ie targeted to the specific case of a given patient without having the possibility of errors diagnostic and therapeutic.
Type of application program registered by Paolo G. Limoli November, 7 2001.

Hardware: Personal computer IBM compatible, min. 32 Mb RAM, video card VGA 1024x 768 o 1280x800, 256 colours, 15 ‘’, driver CD-ROM 8X, 50 Mb hard disk.
S.O.: Microsoft Windows 7, Windows XP e sup., NT 4.0 o sup. Microsoft Vista (executed as “administrator”).
Machine Language: Microsoft Visual Studio
This is a software which virtually reproduces a graphic map of the visual field of the low vision patient.
It should be used by ophtalmologists, orthoptists and opticians and by all those who work with visual impaired people.
We can reproduce maps from every kind of perimeter.
it is important also to have Office 2003 (or following) installed on your PC to work with the reading exercises.
Perimetry or visual field examination is the one which allow us to reproduce the patient’s visual perception. with This examination we can find scotomas and reduction of sensitivity.

Virtual maps start from static or kinetic perimetry

1) the execution of static perimetry or of a microperimetry or of a kinetic campimetry is the first step to virtual visual rehabilitation.
2) the second step is the elaboration of the virtual visual map by importing the result of the visual field examination.
3)The last step is to study the virtual visual map by simulating the enlargement of the reading string and its decentralization, thus choosing the correct visual aid.The decision is based on the minimum enlargement and the minimum decentralization; with virtualipo it is possible to count the number of letters per reading field in order to build up personalized exercises.
The software elaborates the visual field maps in grey scales and allows the operator to project a reading string on the physiological foveal fixation area. If this area is cancelled by the scotoma, the operator can enlarge the reading string and decentralize it on a near free area that could become the new preferred retinal locus.
The operator becoming a virtual patient can choose the best magnifying system with a precise idea of what should be the perception of the real patient with that particular aid.
The prescription of a visual aid becomes easier and less tiring.

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